Work package: Socio-economic impacts of marine litter and barriers to Good Environmental Status
Work package Title Description File
Socio-economic impacts of marine litter and barriers to Good Environmental Status The social costs of marine litter along European coasts

Ocean & Coastal Management 138 (2017) 38-49

This is the first study to assess the social costs of marine debris washed ashore and litter left behind by beach visitors along different European coasts. Three identical surveys, including a discrete choice experiment, are implemented at six beaches along different European coastlines: the Mediterranean Sea in Greece, the Black Sea in Bulgaria and the North Sea in the Netherlands. Beach visitors are asked for their experiences with beach litter and their willingness to volunteer in beach clean-up programs and their willingness to pay an entrance fee or increase in local tax to clean up marine litter. Significant differences are found between countries. This has important implications for the size and transferability of the estimated social costs of marine litter across Europe.

OCMA Brouwer et al 2017.pdf
Socio-economic impacts of marine litter and barriers to Good Environmental Status Policy brief: Best practice examples of existing economic policy instruments and potential new economic policy instruments to reduce marine litter and eliminate barriers to GES

The main objective is to provide a critical review and assessment of potential measures to reduce marine litter. This brief focuses on existing economic instruments implemented in Europe. It points critical factors which influence the appropriateness and effectiveness of economic instruments. It also shows where the scope of current economic instruments could be expanded to explore their capacity to reduce marine litter. Such an evaluation of existing economic instruments to reduce marine litter is essential to furthering the necessary steps to achieve GES and sustainable marine ecosystem management.

CleanSea D4.13 FINAL.pdf
Work package: Tools, Innovation and Applications: Monitoring, Remediation, Fragmentation and Modelling
Work package Title Description File
Tools, Innovation and Applications: Monitoring, Remediation, Fragmentation and Modelling DEVELOPING A TRANSPORT MODEL FOR PLASTIC DISTRIBUTION IN THE NORTH SEA

The present study aims to improve the knowledge regarding the distribution and possible accumulation of plastic litter in the North Sea. This research demonstrates that modeling can provide a regional or global overview and aid in identifying monitoring questions.

Tools, Innovation and Applications: Monitoring, Remediation, Fragmentation and Modelling Hyperspectral imaging and data analysis for detecting and determining plastic contamination in seawater filtrates

One possible way of monitoring plastic particles in sea water is by imaging spectroscopic measurements on filtrates. The idea is that filters from seawater sampling can be imaged in many wavelengths and that a multivariate data analysis can give information on (1) spatial location of plastic material on the filter and (2) composition of the plastic materials. This paper reports on simulated samples with spiked reference plastic particles, and real seawater filtrates containing microplastic pollutants. These real samples were previously identified through visual examination in a microscope. The samples were imaged using three different imaging systems. The different wavelength ranges were 375–970nm, 960–1662nm and 1000–2500nm. Data files from all three imaging systems were analysed by hyperspectral image analysis. The method using the wavelength span 1000–2500nm was shown to be the most applicable to this specific type of samples and gave a 100% particle recognition on reference plastic, above 300 µm and an 84% pixel recognition on household polyethylene plastic. When applied to environmental samples the technique showed an increase in identified particles compared with visual investigations. These initial tests indicate a potential underestimation of microplastics in environmental samples. This is the first study to demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging techniques can be used to study microplastics down to 300µm, which is a common size limit used in microplastic surveys.

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Work package: Overcoming institutional barriers to Good Environmental Status with management measures and policy options to reduce marine litter
Work package Title Description File
Overcoming institutional barriers to Good Environmental Status with management measures and policy options to reduce marine litter Summary of Marine Litter Policy Options

CleanSea project developed a portfolio of policy options for the relevant authorities in the four EU marine regions: the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean. The resulting policy options aim to prevent and reduce marine litter and, in particular, to support the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive  (MSFD). They include not only those measures and practices that can be implemented quickly within the first MSFD cycle (before 2018), but also longer-term options to address structural gaps and shortcomings in the policy framework and institutional set-up.

Work package: Promotion and Dissemination
Work package Title Description File
Promotion and Dissemination Scientific Paper Portfolio

This deliverable aims to present and give access in a consistent manner to CleanSea project research scientific results, which have been or are about to be published as scientific papers in peer reviewed journals.
During the three years of the project, 11 papers have been published in a series of journals covering both natural and social sciences findings. This number increases as to the planned publications as a good number of results are being consolidated at the end of the project life. There are already 12 scientific papers either on the pipeline, under review or under development. More results are expected to come available through publications in the near future.
The document presents first the overall picture through two tables devoted to published papers or those under development. Later on the document introduces each paper through a summary sheet including more in-depth information, the project abstract and a link to the publication when available.
All and all the intention is to provide structured, easy and clear access to the wealth of knowledge generated by the project.

CleanSea D7.29_FINAL.pdf
Promotion and Dissemination Beleidsopties voor zeeën zonder afval

Deze brochure is bedoeld om beleidsmakers, regionale en lokale autoriteiten en andere organisaties te voorzien van praktische beleidsopties en beheersmaatregelen om vooruitgang te boeken bij het terugdringen van afval in zee.

Promotion and Dissemination Управленски практики и възможности за подобряване на чистотата на морската среда

Тази брошура цели да предостави на управляващите, регионални и местни власти и други заинтересовани страни практически насочени възможности и мерки за подпомагане напредъка към намаляване на отпадъците в морската среда.

Promotion and Dissemination Optionen der Politik für Meere frei von Müll

Diese Broschüre hat zum Ziel, Politikern, regionalen und lokalen Verwaltungen sowie anderen Interessengruppen praktische Politik-optionen und Ko-Management-Maßnahmen für eine weitere Reduktion von Meeresmüll an die Hand zu geben.

Promotion and Dissemination Opciones estratégicas para mares sin basuras

Este folleto pretende poner al alcance de autoridades, administración, gestores y otras partes interesadas una  selección de opciones políticas y medidas prácticas de co-gestión con el fin de avanzar en la reducción de basuras marinas



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