Just accepted CleanSea paper: Effect of microplastic on the gills of the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas

Error message

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  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in _registry_check_code() (line 3066 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in module_load_include() (line 330 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/module.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in module_load_include() (line 330 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/module.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in module_load_include() (line 330 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/module.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in module_load_include() (line 330 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/module.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in module_load_include() (line 330 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/module.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in module_load_include() (line 330 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/module.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in require_once() (line 20 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/modules/field/field.module).
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  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in require_once() (line 24 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/modules/field/field.module).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in require_once() (line 25 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/modules/field/field.module).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in require_once() (line 9 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/modules/file/file.module).
  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
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  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
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  • Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in require_once() (line 16 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/sites/all/modules/media/media.module).
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  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in drupal_load() (line 1101 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/includes/bootstrap.inc).
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  • Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in include_once() (line 31 of /var/www/vhost/cleansea-project.eu/home/html/drupal/sites/all/modules/socialmedia/socialmedia.module).
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Source: Environ. Sci. Technol

Authors: Andrew James Russell Watts, Mauricio A Urbina, Rhys M Goodhead, Julian Moger, Ceri Lewis, and Tamara S. Galloway

Environ. Sci. Technol., Just Accepted Manuscript
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01187
Publication Date (Web): April 12, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society


Abstract

Microscopic plastic debris (microplastics, <5mm in diameter) is ubiquitous in the marine environment. Previous work has shown that microplastics may be ingested and inhaled by the shore crab Carcinus maenas although the biological consequences are unknown. Here, we show that acute aqueous exposure to polystyrene microspheres (8µm) with different surface coatings had significant but transient effects on branchial function. Microspheres inhaled into the gill chamber had a small but significant dose dependent effect on oxygen consumption after 1 hour of exposure, returning to normal levels after 16 h. Ion exchange was also affected, with a small but significant decrease in hemolymph sodium ions and an increase in calcium ions after 24 h post exposure. To further asses the effects on osmoregulation, crabs were challenged with reduced salinity after microplastic exposure. Neither microspheres nor natural sediments altered the crab’s response to osmotic stress, regardless of plastic concentration added. Carboxylated (COOH) and aminated (NH2) polystyrene microspheres were distributed differently across the gill surface, although neither had a significant adverse impact on gill function. These results illustrate the extent of the physiological effects of microplastics, compared to the physiological resilience of shore crabs in maintaining osmoregulatory and respiratory function after acute exposure to both anthropogenic plastics and natural particles.

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